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Preston (pronunciation (help·info) IPA: [ˈprɛstən]) is a city and local government district in Lancashire, England, located on the River Ribble. Preston was granted the status of a city in 2002, becoming England's 50th city in the 50th year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. The Mayor of Preston from May 2008 to May 2009 is Councillor John Swindells. The population of the Preston City Council area is c 130,000. The 2001 census indicated 184,836 living in the Preston sub-area and c 335,000 living in the Central Lancashire sub-region, which also includes Leyland and Chorley. Contents [show] * 1 History o 1.1 Etymology o 1.2 Early development o 1.3 Guild Merchant o 1.4 Pre-Industrial Preston o 1.5 Industrial Revolution o 1.6 Religion * 2 Governance o 2.1 Preston City Council o 2.2 Mayors of Preston o 2.3 Freemen of the City o 2.4 Freedom of the City o 2.5 Lancashire County Council o 2.6 Parliament * 3 Geography o 3.1 Physical geography o 3.2 Areas and Estates o 3.3 Out of city Areas/Towns o 3.4 Civic geography * 4 Demographics o 4.1 Ethnicity o 4.2 Religion * 5 Landmarks * 6 Economy * 7 Transport o 7.1 Road o 7.2 Rail o 7.3 Water o 7.4 Bus o 7.5 Air * 8 Education * 9 Media * 10 Sport * 11 Notable people * 12 Twin cities/towns * 13 References * 14 See also * 15 External links  History  Etymology Preston is first recorded in the Domesday Book as "Prestune" in 1086.  Various other spellings occur in early documents: "Prestonam" (1094), "Prestone" (1160), "Prestona" (1160), "Presteton" (1180), and "Prestun" (1226). The modern spelling occurs in 1094, 1176, 1196, 1212 and 1332. The town's name is derived from Old English Presta and Tun, the Tun (town or place) of the Presta (priest or priests).  Early development During the Roman period, the main road from Luguvalium (Carlisle) to Mamucium (Manchester) forded the River Ribble at Walton-le-Dale, ¾ mile (1 km) southeast of the centre of Preston. Here was a Roman camp, probably a regional depot for military equipment or other supplies. At Withy Trees, 1½ miles (2 km) north of Preston, the road crossed another Roman road from Bremetennacum (the Roman fort at Ribchester) to the coast. In Ripon in 705 AD the lands near the River Ribble were set on a new foundation, and the parish church was probably erected. This parish church was probably situated on the grounds of the present Anglican parish of St. John the Evangelist on Church Street, which was originally dedicated to St. Wilfrid and then later St. John the Baptist. Later, Edward the Elder endowed the lands to the Cathedral at York and then, by means of successive transfers the lands were exchanged between lesser churches, hence the origin of the name Priest's Town or Preston. An alternative explanation of the origin of the name is that the Priest's Town refers to a priory set up by St. Wilfrid near the Ribble's lowest ford. This idea is supported by the sameness of the paschal lamb on Preston's crest with that on St. Wilfrid's. Preston was already the most important town in Amounderness (an area of Central Lancashire between the rivers Ribble and Cocker, including The Fylde and Bowland) when first mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086; and it was the wealthiest town in Lancashire when assessed for tax purposes in 1218-19.  Guild MerchantPlasterwork is one of the most ancient of building techniques. Evidence shows that the dwellings of primitive man were erected in a simple fashion with sticks and plastered with mud. The pyramids in Egypt contain plasterwork executed at least four thousand years ago, probably much earlier, and yet hard and durable, at the present time. From recent discoveries it has been ascertained that the tools of the plasterer of that time were practically identical in design, shape and purpose with those used today. For their finest work, the Egyptians used a plaster made from calcined gypsum just like plaster of Paris of the present time, and their methods of plastering on reeds resemble in every way our lath, plaster, float and set work. Hair was introduced to strengthen the material, and the whole finished somewhat under an inch thick.